The aim of this article was to show the basic stages in the Russian sports psychology's development and the role of the All-Russia scientific research institute of physical culture in this process. The psychology of sports, as well as any directions of human life, had and will have the periods of rise, recession and stagnation. It develops first of all together with the country in general and its sports movement in particular. The author analyzes the influence of different factors on the foundation of science schools in sports psychology in Russia and the influence of these scientific schools to the success of Russian athletes in the world sports arena. He shows the tendencies, dominating in sports psychology today also.