The author considers the phenomenon of the education as one of the mechanisms of the civilization's development, distribution and a culture's transfer in generations of a society. The modernization of any branch of education should begin with the audit of scientific representations about that branch of culture, which determines its purposes, contents and technologies. According to his idea, the product of education - the educated person - inevitably brings in the activity the restrictive limit of the quantum of education mastered by him. By virtue of inertia of scientific-practical thinking, this limit gets the form of a cognitive-psychological barrier and becomes an obstacle of the further development of a science and culture. In this connection there is a pressure in the system "practice-culture-science-education". The need of its periodic updating follows from that formula. The modernization of education is a form of overcoming of break between the contents of education and the level of development of a science, on the one hand, and between the condition of serving subsystems of education and requirements of life to their reliability, profitability and efficiency - from another. It is necessary to start the modernization from the revision of the contents, instead of from its adjustment to modern technologies. And the main thing is to overcome the barrier of inertia of thinking.