R.M.Hackman, R.P.Scheckenbach, S.Watterson, N.Volkov

Department ofNlitrilion, University of California,
Davi.s, CaJlifornia, USA,

Institute for Biomolecular Nutrition,
Eugene, Oregon, USA,

Tennessee Oilers NPL football team,
Nashville, Tennessee, USA,

Russian State Academy of Physical Education,
Moscow, Russia

Introduction.High quality nutrition supplements can make a difference in the mental and physical performancr of professional athlets. But not all supplements are created equally! Formulation.s based on a solid scientific as well as traditional medicine foundation have the best chance of favorably enhancing metabolism. Using sufficient quantities of very expensive raw materials such as amino acids, adaptogens, natural source vitamin E, chelated minerals and standardized botanical extracts may further enhance formula efficacy. Additionally, timing the intake of strategic nutrients before, during and after exercise may best meet the needs assotiated with vigorous exercise. This presentation will summarize our work with Olympic and professional athletes in wrestling, basketball, American football, and auto racing. We also report findings from a recent study on male teenage athlets.

Methods. To explore the possibility that high-quality nutrition supplements taken at particular limes during the training regime might enhance performance, teenage athletes were recruited from two high schools prior to the start of an 8-week weight training programm. All were between 15 and 18 years of age, participating in a summer strength traminfi program in preparation for their Fall football (American style) season. All students followed an identical weight training protocol. At the start, maximum strenght was determined for various muscle groups, and a four-week training schedule was established based upon a progressively increasing percentage of the maximum strength. At the start of week 5, maximum strenght for various muscle groups was tested again, and a new four-week training cycle established. Training sessions were held five times per week for 70 minutes per session during the entire eight week program.

Team I (n=23) consumed 3 different commercially-available sports drinks before, during and after training (AdvoCare International, Dallas, Texas, USA). Team 2 (n=27) consumed an equivalent volume of water at each of the three times. The supplement protocol for Team I was; (I) Thirty minutes before training, a beverage containing cholinc, phenylalanine, taurinc and a carbohydrate mixture (50 keal) was consumed; (2) during training, a six percent carbohydrate drink also rich in potassium, magnesium and glutamine (50 keal) was consumed: (3) immediately following training, a drink containing a mix of carbohydrates, proteins, branched-chain amino acids, vitamins, minerals and creatine monohydrate (220 kcal) was consumed.

Pro- and post-test measures were taken for body weight and strength as determined by maximum weight lifted for the bench press, clean and squat.

Results. The mean body weight for Team I was 84.1 kg. at the start of the study, and 84.7 kg. at the end. Mean body weight for Team 2 was 83.3 kg. at the start, and 83.3 kg. at the end. No significant changes occured among or between the two groups.

Mean changes in bench press, clean and squat were recorded as absolute changes (kg.), as well as calculated as the percentage increase relative to pre-test values. Results are shown below:

Team 1 (+supplements)

Pre (kg) Post (kg) Change (kg) Change (%)
Squat 116.0 135.1 19.1 16.4%
Bench 88.1 96.8 8.7 9.9%
Clean 72.7 80.2 7.5 10.3%

Team 2 (water only)

Pre (kg) Post (kg) Change (kg) Change (%)
Squat 137.7 141.7 4.0 2.9%
Bench 95.9 96.8 0.9 2.7%
Clean 93.6 95.4 1.8 2.0%

Statistical analysus using general linear modeling showed significant differences (p<0.05) for ull three strength measures between the two groups. When pre- to post-test difterences were assessed, significant (p<.05) differences were found for each of the three strength measures from Team 1, whereas no significant differences were found for Team 2.

Discussion. Nutrition supplements have been a vital part of elite sports training in Russia for many years. Supplementation by athletes in the US is increasing at all levels of performance (1), and systematic research is need to determine optimal use protocols. Recent research suggests that many nutrients may be beneFicial for sports perfomiance, including potassium (2), glutamine (3), antioxidanis (4) and creatine (5). Tiaditional use of adaptogens such as moomiyo and golden root also offer promise for athlets around the world.

The data above suggests the importance of properly formufated supplements taken at specific times during training. Further studies are required to identify which component(s) may be involved in the ergogenic effects.


I. Sobal J" Marquart L.F. Vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes: a review of literature. Int J Sport Nutr 4:320-34, 1994.

2. Cunningham J.J. Is potassium needed in sports drinks for fluid replacement during exercise? Int J Sport Nutr 7:154-9, 1997.

3. Welbourne T.C. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr 61: 1058-61, 1995.

4. Kanter M.M. Free radicals, exercise, and anlioxidant supplementation. Int J SportNutr 4:205-20, 1994.

5. Maughan R.J. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr 5:94-101, 1995.

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Timing of nutrition supplement intake for peak performance / Hackman R.M. [и др.] // Человек в мире спорта: Новые идеи, технологии, перспективы : Тез. докл. Междунар. конгр. - М., 1998. - Т. 1. - С. 16-17.