SYSTEM OF THE COORDINATIVE ABILITIES OF THE ATHLETES

SYSTEM OF THE COORDINATIVE ABILITIES OF THE ATHLETES

R.Roussev

South - West University "Neofit Rilski"
Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria

The characteristics and the structure of the coordinative abilities (CA) of the athletes are an involved problem of the sport science. The cause for the existing indefinition is the lack of theoretic position in the research of these abilities. Movement coordination can be understood as process of steering and regulating. The cybernetics - a science for the control of the complex dynamic systems is the most appropriate theoretical basis of investigation the CA.

In order to determine the characteristics and the structure of the system of the CA, the cybernetic model method was applied. The human organism was examined as a complex system of movements control. The physiological functions of the human motor system and the sensory systems were analyzed by the cybernetics position. As a result, the functional structure of the control system of the movements was identified.

Components of the complex system are the simple systems of regulation. We identified fifteen different kinds of systems of regulation, which also means that fifteen different coordination abilities exist. They are connected to each other in a hierarchy of five levels.

Level I - abilities to regulate the behaviour of the muscle fibres.

1. Regulation of isometria of the muscle fibres - ability to preserve the constant length of the muscle fibres - constant value control. This ability gives the elasticity of the muscle tissue.

2. Regulation of the contractions of the muscle fibres - ability to regulate the contractions of the muscle fybres - programmed control. This ability makes it possible to change the muscle strain.

Level II - abilities to regulate the strain of the muscles.

3. Regulation of the muscle isotonia - ability to preserve the constant muscle strain - constant value control. For example, in performing all static physical exercises.

4. Regulation of muscle auxotonia - ability to regulate the changes in the muscle strain - programmed control. This ability determines the performance of all dynamic physical exercises.

Level III - abilities to regulate the movements of the body parts.

5. Regulation of the position in the joint - ability to preserve the static position of the body parts - constant value control. The feedback is through the static articular afferentation. For example, in performing level hang on the rings in gymnastics.

6. Kinesthetic-motor regulation - ability to regulate the three - dimensional movements of the body parts - programmed control. The feedback is through the dynamic articular afferentation. This ability determines the correct form of the exercises in gymnastics.

7. Temporal-motor regulation - ability to regulate the duration of the body parts movements - programmed control through the perceptions for temporal dimensions of movements. This ability determines the rhythm of the movements performed without musical accompaniment.

8. Imitation-motor regulation - ability to perform movements, re-create the form of another performer’s movements - sequential control. This ability determines the learning of sport-technical elements by athletes by demonstration patterns, but it is not identical with motor learning ability.

9. Accoustic-motor regulation - the ability to perform rhythmic movements of the body parts in synchrony with rhythmical sound patterns (the music accompaniment) - it is sequential control through the hearing perceptions of dismemberment of the sounds in time. For example, in synchronized swimming, dances, etc.

Level IV - Abilities to regulate the movements of the whole body.

10. Regulation of the body balance - abilities to preserve the equilibrium of the body - constant value control of the position of the body in the earth gravitation. For example, the handstand and the forward horizontal stand.

11. Regulation of the body rotations - ability to regulate the rotation movements of the body. The feedback is through the labyrinth afferentation. It is programmed control. For example, somersault in diving, double loop in figure skating, etc.

12. Visual regulation of the locomotions - ability to change the direction of the locomotions - sequential control of the body moving in the surrounding through the visual perceptions of movements of the observer. For example, in ski slalom, orienteering, etc.

Level V - Abilities to regulate the movements of mobile objects.

13. Manual-stabilizing regulation - ability to fix mobile objects (sport apparatus, or the body of the partner in acrobatics, etc.) holding them with the hands. It is constant value control. The feedback is through the tactual sensitivity. For example, holding a barbell with the hands.

14. Tactual regulation of manipulations - ability to regulate the movements of mobile objects with the hands in relation to one’s own body - programmed control. The feedback is through the tactual perceptions for movement of mobile object. For example, performing stereotype manipulations with sport apparatus - as dribble in basketball.

15. Visual regulation of manipulations - ability to regulate the movements of mobile objects from one place to another (in relation to the surrounding) depending on the situation - sequential regulation through the visual perceptions of movement of mobile object. For example, passing the ball in football and shooting the ball in basketball, etc.


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Roussev, R. System of the coordinative abilities of the athletes // Человек в мире спорта: Новые идеи, технологии, перспективы : Тез. докл. Междунар. конгр. - М., 1998. - Т. 1. - С. 33-34.