S. Dugnani, F. Mauro, V. Guasco

Istituto Superiore di Educazione Fisica della Lombardia,
Milano, Italy

INTRODUCTION. Strength, endurance, speed and flexibility ROM (Range of Motion) are factors affecting sport performances and influenced by weariness.

Many studies have analysed the different factors that are the cause of weariness (Loscher et al.,1996; West W., 1996; Bangabo J. et al, 1996; Saugen al, 1997 ; Sacco P. et al., 1997 ; Sahlin K. Et al, 1997).

This study, related to adult subjects, wants to point out what is the relationship between ROM and weariness and in particular the influence upon the flexibility of the hip of a neuromuscular training directed to weary the intrinsic musculature in the movement of flexion of the inferior limb upon the trunk, making a comparison between dominant and not dominant limb.

METHODS. 20 volunteer male subjects, attending ISEF della Lombardia, Milano, aged between 20 and 27, all dextrorse, made, first of all, a test evaluate the active ROM of coxo-femoral articulation in a flexion on the sagittal plain, with extended limb.

After that, all the students made a specific weariness training program, based on isometric contraction. At the end there was the conclusive collection of data.

All the evaluations have been made by PENNY+GILES BIOMETRICS LIMITED electrogoniometer, 'M' SERIES AXIS GONIOMETER model, produced by PENNY+GILES industry in United Kingdom with frequency of data gathering corresponding to 500 Hz. The transducers have been placed on the hip and on the haunch, at the same distance from trochanter, on the trochanter-epicondyle side femoral line. After adequate warm up, every subject fastened lying position made three flexions for each extended limb (concentric contraction of flexor muscles of the inferior limb upon the trunk).A table with a rigid plain, leather belts to fasten the different parts of the body, a paper target to direct movement on the sagittal plain (placed ahead and over the SIAS), have been used for a precise execution of the exercise. A particular bootleg (Fig.1), fastened with four leather belts, was placed on the knee articulation to maintain the extended limb. Subsequently they made a specific weariness training program, based on two exercises of maximal isometric contraction interesting the iliac-psoas and quadriceps muscles (agonists), and gluteus and ischio-crural musculature (antagonist). During the execution of the first exercise, the subject leant erect against the wall, had to lift up the limb on sagittal plane and had to hold this position for 30 seconds. For the second exercise the subject, prone on the ground, made a back flexion of the leg, while an assistant locked his leg on 90° position, making him to contract maximally for 30 seconds. Subjects repeated both exercises three alternate times. At the end of the weariness training there was a final measurement of the degree of hip flexibility, based on the same test applied at the beginning. For not to affect the result of the test, this work was done first with a limb and after some week with the other.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. The table (Fig.2) shows the data of medium recordings of the two measurements effected before and after the weariness training program. The difference in the values between the limbs have been noticed already before the weariness training program. In particular the inferior right limb, even though it is the dominant limb, points out, in media, a range of motion more reduced than the left limb. This could be referred to the dominant limb’s better tonicity of both agonist and antagonist musculature, not sufficiently balanced, and so determinig alteration in the intermusculature coordination. After the weariness work, a significant ROM decrease of the interested articular district has been found for both limbs. This has been pointed out by the statistical analysis applied to data. Therefore weariness causes a reduction of the active ROM of coxo-femoral articulation. A bigger decrease of the right inferior limb’s mobility has been pointed out in media. We can suppose it has still been caused by the lack of balance of the intermuscular coordination between the muscular agonist - antagonist groups interested in the movement and this is even more evident just for the right limb because of its dominance. The decrease of flexibility ROM registered after the weariness training induces us to deem it necessary to make use of stretching techniques to aid the fast recovery of the normal values of articular ROM.

1° test
pre weariness
2° test
post weariness
Difference between
Active flexion
right limb
65,3° 52,4° - 12,9°
Active flexion
left limb
78,5° 68,5° - 10,0°
Fig. 1: Test execution. Fig. 2: Summarising table of results.


1. DUGNANI S., MAURO F., GUASCO V. :Influence of PNF training technique in the development of hip flexibility ROM. First Annual Congress of ECSS, Nice, France, May 28 - 31, pp 458-459, 1996.

2. DUGNANI S., MAURO F., CASOLO F., GALLI M., ZAPPA B. : Evaluation of training methods by means of kinematic measurements. XIV ISBS’96, Madeira, Portugal, June 25 -29, pp 173-176, 1996.

3. DUGNANI S., MAURO F., GUASCO V. :Influence of neuromuscular weariness training in the hip flexibility ROM. Second Annual Congress of ECSS, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 20 - 23, pp 864-865, 1997.

4. LOSCHER W. et al. : Excitatory drive to the alpha motoneuron pool during a fatiguing submaximal contraction in man. Journal of Physiologi, 491 (Pt 1), 271-80, 1996 Feb 15

5. BANGABO J. et al. : Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man. Journal of Physiologi, 495 (Pt 2), 587-96, 1996 Sep 1

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Dugnani, S. Influence of neuromuscular weariness training in the hip flexibility rom - a comparison between left and right limb / Dugnani S., Mauro F., Guasco V. // Человек в мире спорта : Новые идеи, технологии, перспективы : Тез. докл. Междунар. конгр. - М., 1998. - Т. 1. - С. 103-104.