METHODICAL CONTROL OF ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN THE TRAINING PROCESS

METHODICAL CONTROL OF ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN THE TRAINING PROCESS

T.Gabrys

Academy Of Physical Education
Katowice, Poland

It is anaerobic capacity which determines the level of performance in the events of speed character. Sprint running can be certainly counted among them. Thus, during the conductance of sports training, it is crucial to monitor athletes' capacity regularly. To accomplish it successfully one must select a set of criteria which would characterise this kind of effort in the best possible way. Contemporary researches have shown [Brooks G., Fahey T. 1985,Hollmann w., Hettinger T. 1980, Rovland 1996] that the most important role is played by the determiners of one's energetic potential. Under the conditions of exercise of high intensity [when there is an O2 shortage], it is anaerobic capacity which determines the efficiency of work [Keul J. et al. 1978, Platonov V. 1997]. In order to determine the level of one's capabilities of adaptation, the energetic transformations occuring during anaerobic work, should be estimated on the basis of three cryteria: effectiveness criterion, power criterion and the capacity criterion.[MacDougall J.D. et al. 1991, Volkov N. 1987] On the basis of solid research presented in many reports and own observations conducted during training sessions of athletes specializing in the sprint events, a system of laboratorial cycloergometric tests was worked out. The next stage of the investigation consisted of checking effectiveness of application of this form of training control. On the grounds of the results achieved, the complex sets of the most effective training solutions were built. Their construction was based predominantly on the characteristics of energetic transformations and the possibility for the smooth cooperation of metabolic effects of chemical processes. By doing this, the range of work which did not effect directly adaptation processes was minimised. These steps, aimed at the reduction of unnecessary work, were taken on the assumption that at the present stage of knowledge on sports training, the rationalization of applied training madia is of vital importance.

Material and methods

The characteristics of the subjected groups is presented in Table 1. Tests were carried out according to the periodization of a year's training cycle, four times in the years 1995 and 1996. P.H's training work out in the period prior to the participation in the Olympic Games was assigned on the basis of the results achieved in the control tests. The subjects performed the test on a cycle ergometer Monark 824E within the period of three days.

The following parameters were registred by means of the computer programme MCE: peak anaerobic power, total work, maximal anaerobic power, average maximal power, the coefficient of power decrease, average power, average relative power, time of achieving, time of maintaing. During the conductance of the tests the concentration of lactate [Hla] was determined by means of Dr Lang's photometer LP-400 and reagents LKM-140 [Dr Lange - Germany].

Statistical methods were reduced consideraby assuming that in the case of small groups of insignificant differentiation /resulting from the specifity of specialization/ applying them in a full degree would not display a clear picture of alterations being caused by training media.[Gabryњ T. et al. 1996, Platonov. V. 1997, Volkov N. 1987] Therefore, only means and standard variations were calculated.

Results

Maximal power in the process of anaerobic and non-lactate fueling is obtained already after 0.5-0.7 sec. post the beginning of exercise and can be maintained for 7 to 10 seconds. In the conducted investigation, estimation of this area of adaptation processes was based on the test of 10-second duration.

Analysis of the data obtained during the 10-sec. test of phosphogenic power enabled to determine specific post-exercise effects achived as a result of applied training solutions. The runner - P.H. obtained the top of anaerobic capacity planed for the year 1996 already after the first preparatory period. The 400m specialization required from him mainly the development of glycolyctic fraction during the second preparatory period. The volume, intensity and sort of the training media properly determined, enabled to maintain the obtained level of phosphagenic power in the course of furher periods. The applied testing procedure confirmed the correctness of the assumed direction of instruction. In the groups of 16-17 and 18-19 year-old sprinters, there was primarily found an increase in the level of phosphogenic power after the first preparatory period, eventually followed by a decrease in the second part of year's training cycle. The revelation of such a tendency of anaerobic capacity alterations enabled to apply a correction of training plans aiming at the renovation and restorage of this essential source of energy supply in sprint-running.

A significant role in sprint-running specialization /both during training sessions and competition/ is played by work of maximal intensity of up to 30 seconds of duration. Thus, this short bout of effort is related to re-syntesis of muscle ATP by paths of glycolysis [Brooks G., Fahey T. 1985]. It is believed that lactate concentration in the blood reflects the intensity of work as well as its character.

Analysis of glycolytic fraction of anaerobic capacity, carried out on the basis of the Wingate test, showed the strict relationship between the alterations of this parameter and the sort of training and specialization. The process of training in the groups of 100-200 meter sprinters was during the first preparatory period based on exercises developing phosphogenic power without paying attention to the amelioration of the system of energy supply through the pathways of anaerobic glycolysis. The applied correction of training plans, conducted after the end of the first preparatory period and indoor competition enabled the significant growth of this system, constituting a foundation for the augmentation of volume and intensity of media developing phosphogenic power which is a crucial element of sprinter's anaerobic capacity. [Bar-Or O. 1987, Gabryњ T. et al. 1996, Maud P., Schulz B. 1989, Tharp G. et al. 1984] The 400 runner developed the efficiency of the system of energy relase based on anaerobic glycolysis in conformity with the presumptions of the training plan during the first preparatory period. Thus, it was possible to apply training media which would maintain the obtained level during the second preparatory period. The further development of anaerobic capacity resulted from the broad applications of media aiming at the improvement of other areas of runner's preparation.

The prolongation of exercise duration with high intensity over 30 seconds is a difficult task for an athlete. However, it is attainable if an athlete is well-prepared. If efforts of up to 30 seconds are accompanied by glycolysis maximization, so to extend the time of intensive work maintenance, one needs to build specific propensities which are termed glycolyctic capacity. [Bar-Or O. 1987, Inbar O. 1985, Inbar O. et al. 1996, Volkov N. 1987].

The aplication of the 60-second test, specific for glycolitic power, enabled to obtain a complete view on the area of anaerobic capacity in the subjected sprinters. During P.H's preparation for the Olympic Games in Atlanta the training media were selected and applied on the basis of the obtained data. A lower than expected increase in the efficiency of energy supply for 60-second work, observed after the first preparatory period, gave a clue to the reduction of training media developing the glycolyctic power of medium duration /assessed by the Wingat Test/. Instead, there was applied a wider variety of training media adopting the athlete's organism into prolonged work under the conditions of an increacing oxygen deficit. The efficacy of the assumed conception of training control, was confirmed by P.H's sports results nd his high disposition throughout the whole scan of competition. The other sprinters also achieved the planed results and early enough applied corrections, disscused in this study, contributed to the racionalization of training process.

Conclusions

The structure of the applied training media in the subjected groups of athletes was estimated on the basis of the range of adaptation processes to efforts occuring in the sprint events. On the grounds of the obtained results, the principles of the construction of a training unit were worked out.

The best results in the development of maximal anaerobic non-lactat power were achieved under the following conditions: maximal intensity of exercise, exercise time of up to 6 seconds, intervals of 90-120 seconds, individual exercise repeated no more than 4 times.

The best training effects in the development of glycolic fractions were obtained under the following conditions: maximal or close to maximal intensity of exercise, exercise time from 30 to 120 seconds dependingly of specialization and sports level, recovery interval between exercise repetitions corresponded to the number of repetitions according to the following scheme: between the 1-st and 2-nd repetition: 4-6 min., between the 2-nd and 3-rd repetition: 3-4 min., between the 3-rd and 4-th repetition: 2 min., the number of repetitions not greater than 4.

In the two presented training programmes, one can also apply work in series with 3-4 repetitions and recovery varying from 12 to 30 minutes.

Chosing cycloergometric tests for estimation of adaptation processes occuring in the sprint events was entiraly useful regardless of the age and sports level. Constructing P.H's training programme on the basis of the results obtained in the process of cycloergometric tests enabled him to achieve outstanding results during the Olympic Games in Atlanta and World Junior Championships in Sydney. As the influence of the test results on the training programmes in the other two groups of subjects was small, the obtained results could not have been caunted as being condusive to the optimalization of training process.

Those subjects did not reveal their whole potential during competition. One of the reasons of the inefficiency of instruction was the fact that the selection of training media was based only on the basis of specific running tests which did not shed the full light on the level of adaptation to efforts.

Table 1

The characteristics of the subjected groups of sprinters

Number of group

Subjcted group

 

Sport level

1

P.H. (aged - 19)

1

Personal bests in the 100m. - 10,89 sec, in the 400m. - 46,11 sec. The finalist of the Olympic Games in Atlanta 1996 (6-th in the 4x400m. relay), the fifth place of the Junior World Championships in 1996

2

Sprinters 18-19 years of age

8

Personal bests in the 100m. in range of 10,82 - 11,11 sec.

3

Sprinters 16-17 years of age

12

Personal bests in the 100m. range of 11.18 - 11,43 sec.


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Gabrys, T. Methodical control of anaerobic capacity in the training process // Человек в мире спорта: Новые идеи, технологии, перспективы : Тез. докл. Междунар. конгр. - М., 1998. - Т. 1. - С. 163-165.