National Sports Academy, Department of Sports Training,
Sofia, Bulgaria

The adaptation toward the physical and psychological stress is the main factor for obtaining the high sports performance. The distinctive features of contemporary sports are closely related to the theory of Hans Selye about stress, stress factors and stress training. The sports training is the basic factor for widening and perfecting the adaptation mechanisms in given direction as well as in similar adaptation mechanisms. While developing the sport result we realize the adaptation process whose material expression is the systematical-structural trace.

At the present the attention of sports specialists is concentrated toward a search for new forms of influence and organization of the training process within the framework of the physiologically possible. The practice itself needs the application of the stress training for heightening the human possibilities. The effectiveness of their utilization will be measured with the immediate and commutative effect of adaptation. The specificity of the adaptation process supposes the introduction of measures for the training stress load i.e "unit of the training load" and "threshold of adaptation". The problem is very complex and multidimensional and its dealing presuppose an answer to following important questions:

Which are the precise criterions of the stress training? If any.

What is the algorithm of application of the stress training?

What will be the content (exercises, volume and intensity) of the stress training?

When their application will be fortunate?

What is the individual stress threshold?

Some practical investigations (Dasheva, D, 1991) allowed to made certain suppositions and recommendations about the principal positions of their application during the training process in a middle and long aspect.

The first. The specific program including the stress training is the keystone for creating the psychological stability and work-capacity during the anxiety situations as the sport competition.

The second. The stress training needs the high mobilization of structural and energetic possibilities and respectively the high work-capacity during the training process.

The third. The stress training is related to the i.e " threshold of adaptive changes". This is the moment, that the stimulus able to provoke a "shaking" effect on the different bodily function must be changed in intention to produce the new reactions and posteriori new structural changes.

The four. The stress training is connected to the individual stress range for each athlete and individual optimal stress load, that provoke the adequate adaptive changes. This range widens constantly during the training process. At the last (but not last), the application of the stress training depends of the qualification and level of the sportsmen, the specificity of the motor activity and the stage of preparation.

In conclusion, we must marked that there have not "prescriptions" for the stress training, stress micro, meso and macro cycles. There are some common principles and regularities whose must be adapted to the specific tasks of the training process.


1. Dasheva, D. Stress and stress influences in the preparation of the top level basketball players. Dissertation, NSA, 1991.

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Dasheva, D. The sports training as a stress factor // Человек в мире спорта: Новые идеи, технологии, перспективы : Тез. докл. Междунар. конгр. - М., 1998. - Т. 1. - С. 226-227.