Materials of this book are devoted to the complex direction in sciences about a man - integrative biosocial anthroplogy. Being secondly born on the verge of the XXI-th century (the anthropology if the XIX-th and the beginning of the XX-th centuries had been integrative one originally), it is appealed to improve the potential of human activities' various kinds in training-educational and social-pedagogical areas. The separatly-objective knowledges about a human being are alloyed jointly, giving the notion about somatopsychical, personality-sociocultural and organizm-environmental integrity. In this way, that science carries out the most important function to garmonize the knowledges about a human being. Attracting attention to the weakly studied problems, it makes their solving topical for general level of knowledges widening. Due to the influence of the integrative anthropology's ideas and principles, the interdisciplinary investigations become significant on the traditional sciences' junctions: anatomy and physiology, psychology and physiology, biology and sociology etc. The predominant both in classical and contemporary integrative anthropology the paradigm of the individual and personality mutability's forms and factors serves like the catalyst and the directing core of these scientific searches. Does the commanding idea of various knowledges' about human being harmonization realize itself in the deeping consideration of the linked and unlinked mutability's forms.
Among many of theoretical constructions in the contemporary integrative biosocial anthropology we had attracted a reader's attention to the most fundamental aspects connected with a practice's demands: psychological, constitutional and ecological ones. The question is - why?
Imagine this scientific area as a mountain ridge, imagine also the mountain-climber who tries to climber up that ridge searching the knowledges. In that case the top of the mountain can be reached most difficultly, but just for this reason is the most attractive - that is the psychological anthropology. The mountain slope which is tried to be overpowered by the mountain climber from science, removing from one nature-climatical zone to another - that is the ecological anthropology. The Nature's project, that was realized after this mountain massifs had appeared and the laws directed by its creation at the epoches highly distant from us - that is the constitutional anthropology.
Otherwise, the constitutional anthropology answers the question: why are we such ones, as we are. The ecological anthropology explains - how had we become such ones. And psychological anthropology teaches - why we realize our particularity, singling ourselves out of anyone similar to us. But at the same time everyone of these aspects in integrative biosocial anthropology demonstrates the individual originality of our beingness and factors determining it.
The given book had completed the trilogy dedicated to the problem of a human being from the positions of the integrative anthropology. The first part of the trilogy (Essays of integrative anthropology's theory and practive), giving the general characteristics of this respectively new for a reader ares of knowledges, had underlined the reality of its historical roots. Their solidness and initiality are in eternal humanity's notions about the unity of the corporal, spiritual and mental substances in man. These notions are confirmed by the traditions of the Christian theology but in their essence they are of the common mentality. The community of human .microcosm, the conditionality of its distribution into the parts, their close contigency, the inseparable connectivity of the last ones with each other are sensed in conjunction with the views on the unity of a human being and the material and spiritual universe surrounding him (her). Therefore we have a right to say after the English philosopher and poet John Dann, that a Human Being is not an island but a part of a continent.
The historical roots of the intergrative anthropology are different over the depth of their occurrence. They are in the traditionalistic outlooks of Christian spirituality's Fathers. They are in the concepts of the post naturalists about a man's dependence on the general lows of Nature and in the ideas of the leading domestic schools' psychologists - B.M. Teplov, V.S. Merlin, B.G. Ananyev, A.B. Petrovsky, V.V. Davydov and others - about the inseparable wholeness of Human Being as the psychobiological phenomenon in spite of its components' ruggedness in separate cooperating systems of properties and qualities (hierarchic levels).
The idea about the integrative contingency of the sciences about Human Being is not the original one. But the new in its putting is the problem; what functions of them can be adopted by integrative anthropology without making damage to the scientific realities, when conserving the composed and traditionally existing sciences about Human Being? What are the general principles of the integrative anthropology's reconstruction and what does determine the demands in it?
The task of two last issues of trilogy ("Integrative pedagogical anthropology" and "Integrative biosocial anthropology") was reduced to the foundation (by the examples of some concrete areas in pedagogical and ecological knowledge) the oportunity to increase the effectiveness of some human practice's kinds, to optimize the conditions of a man's functioning in the complicated situations of natural an social environment, to elaborate the well-founded means of the scientific prediction in the interests of biology, psychology, sociology and policy.
The human life's saturation by new phenomena and events advances the problems of the qualitive and quantitive orders. The solving of the first ones has often the intensive character: faster, stronger, more energetic etc. But this way of the human factor's improvement is practically passed up to the end. The XX-th century had exhausted almost completely the opportunities of the activities' optimization through its intensity's increasing. It becomes necessary to search the new extensive forms to improve the human factor by transfering onto the new quantative level by means of the new less expensive technologies' introduction and the labour potential's saving. Coming into the XXI-th century we must investigate the untraditional ways of the human practices' optimization. The authors of this book discern them in the realization of the integrative anthropology's ideas and elaborations about somatopsychical, personality-sociocultural and organism-environmental kind of unity, considered from the positions of the doctrine about the living systems.
"If they light the stars, somebody needs it", - said the Poet. Araising mentally over the peaks of the integrative anthropology we are not only understand through what difficulties we had passed, but also why the sky shines above us.
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Кузин, В.В. Интегративная биосоциальная антропология / Кузин В.В., Никитюк Б.А.; РГАФК. - М.: ФОН, 1996. - 220 с.